The Native American community have noted the hypocrisy, and ignorance of the average White-American to the history and formation of the US, and to what extent their ancestor's illegal immigration has contributed to the decline of Native American culture and society. To refute the Eurocentric narratives of those who justify the stealing of land, colonial-settler terrorism, and genocide perpetrated by the settlers of the 13 colonies, and founders of the United States, is not a difficult task. There are no intelligent philosophies which justify the barbaric culture of conquest which has plagued Europeans since the 11th century, and so it is not very difficult to identify the flawed ideology of settler-colonialism. The "Doctrine of Discovery", the U.S' legal cover for theft, which states Europeans have the right to rule, and relinquish occupancy of Indigenous people who's land Europeans have "discovered", is comically easy to refute, merely pose the question "How can Europeans discover a land which is already occupied?" and one of the prevailing beliefs which established the US, is debunked. The myth of the Americas as "Uninhabited Wilderness" where there were no laws, government, or borders which would result in white settlers being illegal immigrants, is also false. By the time Europeans had arrived to America, Native Americans inhabited and developed every part of America, and had at that point developed systems of government, complex trade networks, and established territories with clearly defined boundaries. The US has broken over 500 of the Treaties made with Native Americans, treaties primarily concerned with territory, thus the European has illegally invaded native land, never bothering to learn the language, culture, or values of Native people of this land, while hypocritically condemning, Mexicans, many of whom are Indigenous, for not speaking English, or learning to be "American". Europeans have never offered the courtesy of assimilating to any culture they have interacted with, if they have an issue with Indigenous presence on this land Europe is only a boat ride away.
By: Indigenous Pride
A massive, racist, deportation drag net.
The Mexicano-Chicano of today was born the in the Analco colonies born from the mixture of Meican, Otomi, Tlazcalteca, and Tabasco with tribes of north and later, with the mestizos and mulatos produced by the Spanish invasion.
The Spanish soldiers who invaded the north, who invaded Azlan, were very few in number, and they were conquerors not workers. All the work in the north was done by Mexicans and by local Indians captured as slaves.
The Mexican northward movement thus commenced, a movement of common working people side by side with the northward movement of the Spanish exploiters.
The Spanish first settled Santa Fe during the winter of 1609-1610 as they sought to “civilize” the North American continent and to expand their New World empire. Mirroring other Spanish colonial settlements of the era, the colony in Santa Fe was a defensible fort and village set around a central plaza.
Santa Fe was for the Spanish soldiers and their Indian or mestiza wives. The Mexicans and other Indian workers had to build houses in their own separate area and this was given the Aztec name Analco. Nalco was comprised of primarily of Indian type houses, the houses of poor people, of servants. Santa Fe received fame, power, recognition while the Analco was the home of the oppressed, the worker, the ruled.
The sons of Spanish soldiers and the Mexican or Indian wives would be able to become soldiers and rulers. As they did, they began to call themselves Espanoles, denying their mother’s heritage.
Credit: Aztecas Del Norte, J.D. Forbes
The settlers agreed to be Catholics, all public transactions must be in Spanish, and had to relinquish their US citizenship & take an oath of loyalty to Mexico all of which they failed to do.
In response, the Mexican government outlawed all slavery in Mexico. To circumvent the law, the Anglos turned their slaves into indentured servants for life.
In 1830, Mexico prohibited further American immigration into Mexican territory, but they ignored the immigration law & continued to cross the border.
1845 James Polk convinced Congress to annex Texas with the southern border set along the Rio Grande. Mexico immediately cut off relations with U.S. and insisted that Texas’s southern boundary was the Nueces River, not the Rio Grande which was 130 miles to the south.
The U.S. government declared it had no choice but to go to war with Mexico. Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande to attack the U.S. army and on May 11, 1846, the U.S. was at war with Mexico.
The Treaty ceded Texas with the Rio Grande boundary, and all territory between Texas and the Pacific - territory that later became the states of New Mexico, California, Nevada, Utah, and most of Arizona, Wyoming, and Colorado. In return, the U.S. was to pay Mexico $15 million of which Mexico never got a dime. Americans gained over 1 million square miles - an area amounting to one-half of all Mexico.
In 1848 several hundred thousand Mexican people (Spanish-speaking Mexicans and tribal groups) were brought under the jurisdiction of the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
This treaty provided many protections for Mexican people, including United States citizenship and security in the “free enjoyment of their liberty, property and religion”. The treaty envisioned that the Mexican-dominated Southwest and natives would be able to protect their interests by means of their own state constitutions and, of course, the United States Constitution.
The former Mexican people were, however, betrayed by events beyond their control. The California gold rush flooded that area with non-Mexicans, and an Anglo-dominated state was quickly created. The Colorado-Utah-Nevada region also passed to Anglo control and states were rapidly created. In 1912 Anglo control was established in Arizona and New Mexico. The implicit promise of the treaty - that former Mexican people would possess states and self-government was, therefore, nullified.
The United States also violated the treaty in more flagrant ways. For example, former Mexicans were deprived of their “property” in various ways. Spanish speaking property owners were subjected to a process of providing title, which made it virtually certain that their estates would be acquired by Anglo-Americans. They were also subjected to discriminatory land taxation in California by that state’s Anglo-dominated legislature. Former Mexicans of tribal affiliation “Indians” were even more flagrantly deprived of their property. The US pretended that Indians were not covered either by the provisions of the treaty by the protective clauses of the Constitution - they were fair game for everyone, “trespassers on the public domain.” Ancient villages, protected by Mexican law, were now broken up by US action.
Mexicans were also frequently deprived of their liberty, as when military or territorial governments favored Anglo-Americans, or when California disfranchised virtually all people of Indian descent. Mining regions were often closed to former Mexicans, and mineral discoveries were forcibly seized by Anglo-Americans, Tribal groups were indiscriminately slaughtered in California and literally pushed toward extinction - perhaps seventy-five thousand were eliminated during the 1850s with violence, and interethnic relations were tinged with bitterness. Ironically this bitterness was not a direct legacy the United States-Mexican War, but of the decades of discrimination which followed.
Spanish was a legal language throughout the Southwest and was used in legislative bodies, voting, judicial proceedings, and education. In California, Mexicans remained in a majority in the south and occupied many political and appointive offices. Many newspapers were bilingual, and all California state publications were required by the state constitution of 1849 to be available in both English and Spanish. All of this changed, however, during the 1870s and 1880s. The Anglo majority wrote a new constitution which delegalized Spanish. Anglos took over the economics and politics of southern California. Schools were transformed into replicas of the New England school house.
Jack D. Forbes
“Aztecss Del Norte -
The Chicanos of Azltan"
The border separated the slave plantations of Texas from a potential haven for fugitive slaves across the border. Not only had Mexico outlawed slavery in 1824, it rewrote its constitution in 1857 to declare that "slaves that set foot on national territory recover their liberty by this fact alone." Outraged plantation owners demanded that Mexico sign an extradition treaty similar to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 that would require it to return African Americans who had escaped bondage.
The basic lines of the current 2,000-mile border were set by the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in the aftermath of the Mexican-American War and they sliced through the homelands of the Tohono O'odham, Apache and Comanche. For the next three and a half decades, the U.S. would fight a bloody war in the Southwest against border-crossing Native Americans.
Carrigan, a history professor at Rowan University in New Jersey, says these murders were motivated by racism and greed for land, and the victims were often accused of theft or other crimes to motivate the mob. Anglo-Americans claimed that the lawlessness of the region forced them to take the law into their own hands.“What happened was that very quickly this became an excuse, a justification by mobs, they knew that if they said this it resonated with people and they could get away with their unstated objectives,” says Carrigan. These objectives typically meant taking over the murdered person’s ranchlands or mining claim.These murders continued with impunity until the 1920s, when the Mexican and U.S. governments teamed up to prosecute a sheriff in Texas responsible for killing a Mexican man and his two sons.“It’s not that violence against Mexicans ended, it continued,” says Carrigan, “but it now had to take a different kind of form, it couldn’t be the same public execution of Mexicans. It had to be secret, cover-of-night. It was a transformative moment.”Featured image: In 1877, Francisco Arias and José Chamales were lynched in Santa Cruz, California. Their killers were never named in court, and it was speculated that members of the jury had been in the lynch mob. The photo was taken by John Elijah Davis Baldwin, a Santa Cruz photographer.(CREDIT: Covello & Covello Photography)
By MARLON BISHOP AND JULIA SHUMAR 11, 2016 HISTORY
aztec natives the mexican people are indigenous to america.
aztec natives mexicans, aztecs, mexica, native americans, we are one
Mexicans Who Call Themselves American Indian
January 2012 report from the U.S. Census Bureau—“The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010”—says that 175,494 Mexicans (Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano) self-identified as American Indian, making them the fourth largest tribal group in the country, says Think Mexican.The group also pointed out on its tumblr page that the 2010 United States Census form was “deliberately disorienting” and that some Census workers were encouraging Mexicans to identify as white.They refer specifically to question No. 9 on the form, which asks to which race residents of a home belong. The choices included: White, Black, American Indian, Alaska Native, various Asian descents, Hawaiian, Pacific Islanders, and “some other race.”“It was confusing. I came to that question, and I just stopped. I didn’t know what to put,” Jessica Valenzuela, a schoolteacher from Avondale, told The Arizona Republic in 2010. “Obviously, I’m not White. I would consider myself Hispanic or Mexican-American, but definitely not White. The form doesn’t really leave you with another option, though.”Think Mexican says that while 175,494 out of 31 million Mexicans in 2010 may not seem like that much, but despite of the confusing form and centuries of Catholic indoctrination, it’s a “powerful statement.”“It says that indigenous identity amongst many Mexicans is strong, and although this group is numerically relatively small, it represents a much larger group with a similar heritage,” the group says.They also say Mexicans making up the fourth largest tribal group directly challenges Manifest Destiny by saying: “This land is still Native.”
Source: CMN Staff • August 5, 2013A
Jorge Ramos the Trump effect